Gynecomastia is a common incidental finding on thoracic computed tomography (CT)

Gynecomastia is a common incidental finding on thoracic computed tomography (CT). did not buy Erastin correlate with body mass index (= .962). The size of breast glandular tissue was identified to be correlated with the morphologic type of breast tissue and the severity of CLD or CKD. The prevalence of incidental gynecomastia seen on thoracic CT was 12.7%. CT-depicted gynecomastia is not associated with obesity but with CLD, CKD, and medications. When gynecomastia is detected on CT, further evaluations and management might be required for patients with a treatable cause. (5th ed.; diagnostic criteria, high-risk drinking (as defined by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was used as a criterion for alcohol abuse. For males, the Korea Centers for Disease Control buy Erastin and Prevention (which conducts the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) defines high-risk drinking as consuming seven or more alcoholic drinks at least twice a week (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Adrenal glands included in thoracic scans were reviewed to confirm the presence or absence of HOX1I a mass. For patients with a history of malignancy including lymphoma, abdominal CT scans were also reviewed to check for liver metastases. Patients with a history of HIV infection, thyrotoxicosis, germ cell tumor, and Klinefelter syndrome were identified by a review of medical records. Statistical Analysis The Wilson method was used to calculate the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the prevalence of gynecomastia on thoracic CT (Newcombe, 1998). Analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical software package (version 19.0, Chicago, IL) and dBSTAT for Windows (version 5.0, Seoul, Korea); values buy Erastin .05 were considered statistically significant. Students test was used to analyze continuous variables and the Fishers exact test or the chi-square test was used to identify correlations among categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses with the Enter method were performed to determine and obtain odds ratios (ORs) of possible causes affecting the presence of gynecomastia. Variables with .10 through unadjusted univariable analysis were used as input variables for logistic regression analyses. Age adjustment was only used to control for age effects. Spearmans correlation coefficients (rho) was used to analyze each correlation between size and multiple factors including body mass index (BMI), grade of CKD, and grade of CLD. BMI was classified into three groups based on the World Health Organization definition (WHO Expert Consultation, 2004). BMI values of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m2 were classified as overweight and values above 30.0 kg/m2 and below 25.0 kg/m2 were classified as obesity and normal, respectively. The CochranCArmitage test was used to investigate changes in risk factor trends based on age and assess linear trends regarding the presence of gynecomastia based on BMI and age (by decades) with possible causes. The KruskalCWallis test followed by Tukeys post hoc test with size-rank was used to compare the sizes of gynecomastia among the morphologic types. Results A total of 5,501 patients who underwent a thoracic CT scan during the study period were included. Of them, 384 patients were excluded because they lacked precise medical records or because they underwent HRCT (Figure 1). Breast glandular tissues larger than 1 cm on thoracic CT were detected in 1,181 of 5,117 patients (23.1%; 95% CI [22.0, 24.3]). Of them, 671 were diagnosed as having gynecomastia with breast glandular tissue size 2 cm. Another 21 patients had been excluded through the analysis due to incomplete medical information. A complete of 650 individuals (12.7%; 95% CI [11.8, 13.7]) were included. The mean age group of the included individuals was 56.44 years (16.75 [= 650)= 650)(%)(%)BMI = body mass index; CT = computed tomography; OR = chances percentage. aMultivariable logistic regression with age group adjustment. 1000 and fifty individuals without gynecomastia had been selected like a control buy Erastin group with breasts glandular tissue significantly less than 1cm. The mean age group of the control group was 56.74 years (16.23, range 11C96). Several neonates had been contained in the research (five individuals). Only 1 patient had breasts glandular tissue bigger than 1 cm (Desk 3). Nevertheless, the additional four patients exposed prominent breasts glandular cells with at the least 0.5 cm and no more than 0.9 cm on both relative sides, which had been the nodular type. This distributions of gynecomastia and breasts glandular cells 1 cm.

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