Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by

Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. high risk venues. Results We recognized three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign visitors, who were in turn most Dasatinib likely to engage in the riskiest actions. Conclusion Our results spotlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in actions of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have prospect of HIV transmitting. Policymakers and avoidance researchers may use these data and solutions to focus on HIV avoidance assets to identified concern areas. Keywords: Alcohol locations, HIV transmitting, Travel and leisure, Dominican Republic, Latent cluster evaluation 1. INTRODUCTION Alcoholic beverages intake and availability possess more and more been implicated as elements connected with HIV transmitting (Bryant, 2006). Dominant versions evaluating the association between alcoholic beverages make use of and HIV transmitting have largely centered on specific difference factors (George and Stoner, 2000; Clark and Cook, 2005). This books posits that alcoholic beverages elevates HIV vulnerability though multiple systems linked to decision-making, including dampening defensive cues (Steele and Josephs, 1990), changing perceived expectations relating to alcoholic beverages use-related intimate expectancies (Cooper, 2002), and reducing intimate inhibitions (George and Stoner, 2000; Cain and Kalichman, 2004), facilitating the probability of risky sexual behavior thus. Alcoholic beverages may boost specific susceptibility to HIV by disrupting disease fighting capability working also, that may impair the bodys defenses to HIV an infection (Pandrea et al., 2010; Hahn et al., 2011) and result in more rapid advancement of the condition in HIV positive people (Hahn and Samet, 2010). Despite Dasatinib identification that alcoholic beverages is a significant contributor Rabbit Polyclonal to SLU7 to HIV risk, it has been relatively overlooked in current HIV prevention attempts (Fritz et al., 2010). The few alcohol-based HIV prevention interventions have mainly focused on altering alcohol use by appealing to individual-level variables (OLeary et al., 2003; Kalichman, 2010). Overall, these studies possess yielded combined, short-term effects (Kalichman et al., 2007, 2008; Kalichman, 2010), suggesting the need to consider the sociable dynamics and structural context of alcohol environments. Emerging study emphasizes alcohol venues as potential focuses on for HIV prevention attempts (Lewis et al., 2005; Kalichman, 2010). Study in South Africa (Morojele et al., 2006; Kalichman et al., 2008), India (Proceed et al., 2007; Sivaram et al., 2008) and Zimbabwe (Fritz et al., 2002; Mataure et al., 2002; Lewis et al., 2005) focus on the part of alcohol consumption on individual HIV risk behavior, and how venues shape HIV risk. Extant study reports probability of HIV risk behaviors in alcohol settings (Fritz et al., 2002; Proceed et Dasatinib al., 2007; Kalichman et al., 2008), and in some instances has documented an increased prevalence of HIV among location patrons compared with the general human population (Lewis et al., 2005; Proceed et al., 2007). Findings focus on that risky sexual behavior is definitely often facilitated from the structural environment of alcohol venues, such as the availability of on-site locations for transactional sex, as well as sexually suggestive entertainment (Morojele et al., 2006; Kalichman et al., 2008; Ao et al., 2011). Study suggests three main venue-related factors that contribute to HIV risk: the structural environment of venues, Dasatinib risk organizations that frequent venues and risky interactions that happen between risk organizations at venues. Although previous studies have recorded the presence or absence of one or more of the above HIV risk signals in alcohol venues, we know of no study that has assessed the convergence of these factors to identify areas.

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