Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from

Caffeic, syringic, and protocatechuic acids are phenolic acids derived directly from food intake or come from the gut rate of metabolism of polyphenols. toxicity to normal cells while they decreased Rabbit polyclonal to BNIP2 expansion in leukaemia cells, inducing apoptosis. In the argument on ideal ROS-manipulating strategies in malignancy therapy, our work 6202-23-9 supplier in leukaemia cells supports the antioxidant ROS-depleting approach. 1. Intro In the medical books, the term polyphenols relates also to phenolic acids, although from the strict structural point of look at of purely chemically centered definition they are monophenolic compounds, as widely stated by Quideau et al. [1]. The reason for including phenolic acids in the family of flower polyphenols lies in the truth that they are bioprecursors of polyphenols and, more importantly, they are metabolites of polyphenols. Many papers and evaluations describe studies on bioavailability of phenolic acids, emphasizing both the direct intake through food usage and the indirect bioavailability produced by gastric, intestinal, and hepatic rate of metabolism of true polyphenols [2C8]. Two elements possess to become taken into account when diet phenolic compounds are tested in cell ethnicities as models: seldom the free form, that is definitely, aglycone, is definitely the actual molecule reaching blood and cells; and the concentration used should become related to that found in the circulatory system, that is definitely, nmol/T to low mmol/T [6, 9]. More than ten years ago, we began studying the antioxidant activity of phenolic acids deriving 6202-23-9 supplier from the intestinal rate of metabolism of polyphenols or coming directly from food, associate of the two major classes of phenolic acids, that is definitely, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids. We have focused on antioxidant properties of these phenolic acids, tested at low micromolar concentration, starting from tests carried out in homogeneous answer and in membrane models. In particular, we have analyzed caffeic acid (CAF), a derivate of cinnamic acid transporting two hydroxyl organizations in position, syringic (SYR), and protocatechuic (PRO) acids, with a hydroxybenzoic structure: SYR with methoxyl organizations in positions 3 and 5 and hydroxyl group in 4, and PRO with hydroxyl organizations in positions 3 and 4. Direct sources of CAF are times, berries, fruit such as apricot, apple and kiwi, spices or herbs, natural herbs, vegetables, beverages such as coffee, wine, and, at a smaller degree, ale [10C13]. The main sources of SYR are swiss chard, olives, walnuts, times, spices or herbs, and pumpkin [10, 14]. PRO, besides becoming one of the main anthocyanin metabolite [15], is definitely present in cocoa powder, times, chicory, olives, and onions [10]. These compounds possess been analyzed primarily for 6202-23-9 supplier their properties against oxidative damage leading to numerous degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, swelling, and malignancy. Indeed, 6202-23-9 supplier tumour cells, including leukaemia cells, typically have higher levels of reactive oxygen varieties (ROS) than normal cells so that they are particularly sensitive to oxidative stress. Variations in ROS levels between normal and malignancy cells are due to the dysregulation of redox balance in neoplastic cells that develop when, for instance, intracellular production of ROS raises, or when antioxidant defences are exhausted [16C22]. The importance of ROS in malignancy is definitely unequivocal, but scientists still not precisely understand how reactive varieties work [23]. Many critiques extensively describe sources, mechanisms, and involvement of ROS in malignancy, and illustrate the part of cellular redox rules in malignancy therapy development [24C30]. In particular, recently Wang and Yi [31] well examined two paradoxical ROS-manipulation strategies in malignancy treatment, that is definitely the reverse proantioxidant and antioxidant methods. They propose the development of redox signaling signature, a combinational arranged of guidelines such as redox status, antioxidant digestive enzymes manifestation, cell signalling, and transcription element service information in a given type of malignancy cells, to become used as an index for choosing one of the two faces of the coin: ROS-elevating or ROS-depleting specific therapy against particular type of malignancy cells. A way to destroy cells is definitely the induction of apoptosis, the programmed cell death. Whether this goal should become reached by reducing or increasing ROS is definitely questionable, likely depending on the redox signaling signature of each cell type. The advantage of such a strategy, that is definitely, the induction of apoptosis death signalling pathways, is definitely that normal cells are not significantly affected since their basal ROS levels are lower and, consequently, they are less vulnerable to redox changes. Recently, Halliwell observed that one of the numerous contribution to malignancy played by reactive varieties is definitely their ability to suppress apoptosis.