The aim of this study was to increase the yield of

The aim of this study was to increase the yield of biodiesel produced by sp. our preliminary studies [14, 15], sp. was shown to be an appropriate resource for biodiesel by determining its lipid composition and extraction yield. Therefore, we decided to use this varieties like a biodiesel feedstock in the present study. FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) are produced via a transesterification process that involves a chemical reaction between triglycerides and an alcohol, generally methanol, in the presence of a catalyst [16, 17]. This process is the one that is most commonly used to produce industrial biodiesel due to the low cost of the catalyst, its energy in mass production, and its high productivity. However, this method often produces a large amount of dangerous solvent waste and is generally cumbersome. This transesterification process requires preextracting the oil from the raw materials. Automated extraction products has been successfully developed, but it requires a longer extraction process [6, 18, 19]. Recently, an sp. was selected for biodiesel production through Transesterification via Alkaline or Acidic Catalysis The transesterification via alkaline or acidic catalysis was injected into a GC having a flame ionization detector (FID); an SP-2560 column (100?m 0.25?mm 0.2?< 0.05. The optimal extraction condition was identified using regression analysis. 3. Results and Discussion 3.1. Optimization of Crude Biodiesel Production Using an Alkaline or Acidic Catalyst For standard two-step industrial biodiesel production, methanol is most often used as the reaction solvent with an alkaline catalyst for transesterification because it offers several advantages over the simultaneous separation of glycerol, a high product yield, and low price [31], as well as mild processing conditions, short reaction times, and some additional economic benefits [32C34]. Rather than this standard transesterification process, transesterification with an alkaline catalyst could be used; however, for the production of biodiesel from microalgae, an alkaline catalyst would Rabbit polyclonal to SUMO3 not be suitable for the transesterification process, due to the characteristically high FFA (free fatty acid) content material of the microalgal lipids. transesterification of oils comprising high concentrations of FFA would result in a partial saponification reaction, leading to soap formation [25]. Soaps can cause the formation of emulsions, which create problems in the downstream recovery and purification of the biodiesel [35]. Using inorganic acids, such as hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as reaction catalysts was consequently regarded as for microalgal lipid transesterification, because of the insensitivity to the FFA content material of this Epothilone B lipid feedstock. As a result, using acidic catalysis facilitates both the biodiesel generating transesterification and esterification reactions [25]. Studies of the catalytic activities of HCl and H2SO4 in the transesterification of seed oil, cotton seed oil, and vegetable oil, among others, showed that H2SO4 exhibited better catalytic activity than HCl [36, 37]. Consequently, for transesterification using an alkaline or acidic catalyst, several reaction parameters should be considered such as the reaction temperature, the reaction time, the amount of catalyst, the amount of solvent, the water content material, and the agitation rate [36, 37]. To obtain the Epothilone B highest yield of biodiesel, these variables were optimized utilizing the Taguchi strategies [38], using an L9 three-level-four-factor orthogonal array matrix [34]; nine tests had been designed as proven in Tables ?Desks11 and ?and33 for an alkaline or an acidic catalyst, respectively. Using an alkaline catalyst, as proven in Desk 1, the biodiesel produce was the cheapest and the best in experiment #1 1 and test no. 8 8, respectively. With regards to the known degree of each aspect, the yields transformed from Epothilone B 11.63 1.06 to 55.07 2.18% and the common yield was 38.45 1.50%. In each aspect level (worth per device level, the ( = worth) between your maximum and least transesterification via alkaline catalysis. The dots within the response time, quantity of catalyst, and solvent volume display the fluctuations within the biodiesel produce. The cheapest biodiesel produce was attained at the cheapest response temperature; raising the response temperature led to an increased biodiesel produce. The effects from the elements decreased in the region of response temperature (47.5%) > solvent volume (26.7%) > response period (17.5%) > catalyst amount (8.3%). The perfect levels.

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