This paper presents an analysis of dream-reality confusion (DRC) in relation

This paper presents an analysis of dream-reality confusion (DRC) in relation to the characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD), based on research findings and theoretical considerations. the question of whether individuals with certain features of BPD may have difficulty distinguishing between dreams and reality. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of DRC in relation to features of BPD. We hypothesize that BPD subjects are highly predisposed to experience DRC. This hypothesis is supported by the underlying assumption that there are groups of interrelated variables that are present in both DRC and BPD. These variables, which we identified through an analysis of the scientific literature, can be divided into the following Abiraterone Acetate categories: (i) sleep disturbances; (ii) dissociative symptoms; (iii) adverse fantasy content material; (iv) cognitive disruptions; and (v) slim boundaries. This department was made based on theoretical considerations; simply no factor analyzes have already been carried out yet. Each one of these five factors is presented below separately. Factors Within DRC and BPD Rest Disruptions Rest disruptions, for the purpose of this theoretical evaluation, add a variety of issues with rest that are talked about below. Such sleep issues are very common amongst people with BPD (Hafizi, 2013). Though there’s small epidemiological data on sleep problems among persons identified as having BPD, cross-sectional studies also show that sleep problems Abiraterone Acetate are common in 15C95.5% of the group (e.g., Asaad et al., 2002; Semiz et al., 2008; Plante et al., 2009; Sansone et al., 2010). In comparison to a nonclinical Abiraterone Acetate group, people with BPD consider additional time to drift off, rest for shorter instances, have lower rest efficiency, and also have regular rest disruptions (Semiz et al., 2008). EEG recordings demonstrated, for instance, that study individuals inside a BPD group, in comparison to a nonclinical human population, got shorter NREM rest phases 2 and 4 and much longer NREM rest stage 1, and got high-voltage delta waves during NREM rest (Benson et al., 1990; Philipsen et al., 2005). REM rest also was different between your organizations, with BPD patients spending more time in REM sleep, which had a longer latency, a longer first episode, and a higher REM density, as well as high-voltage delta and theta waves in REM sleep, in participants with BPD (Asaad et al., 2002; Philipsen et al., 2005). Patients with BPD also have more night awakenings than persons from a non-clinical population (Battaglia et al., 1993; La Fuente et al., 2001). Frequent awakenings may lead to difficulty determining whether an event/experience occurred during the waking state or was part of dream content (Trajanovic et al., 2007). Labile sleepCwake cycles are another example Abiraterone Acetate of sleep disturbances. They may occur in the course of BPD and they are correlated with DRC (Fleischer et al., 2012). Labile sleepCwake cycles may promote the Rabbit Polyclonal to TNF12 intrusion of dreamlike experiences into Abiraterone Acetate waking consciousness that can lead to DRC and foster the feeling of depersonalization, which is a dissociative symptom. They also have an adverse effect on memory, thus favoring the creation of false memories (van der Kloet et al., 2012). Individuals who report sleep disturbances score high on dissociative scales, fantasy proneness (a tendency for (DES), which measures the frequency of dissociative symptoms, such as autobiographical amnesia, derealization, depersonalization, absorption, and identity alteration (Bernstein and Putnam,.

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