Osteocytes, the main kind of bone tissue cells embedded in the

Osteocytes, the main kind of bone tissue cells embedded in the bone tissue matrix and surrounded with the canalicular and lacunar program, can serve seeing that biomechanosensors and biomechanotranducers from the bone tissue. model can be used to forecast the mechanobiological behaviours of osteocytes under the four different compressive loadings and may provide an insight into the mechanisms of mechanosensation and mechanotransduction of the bone. 1. Introduction Bone is a dynamic biological structure that can adapt to its mechanical environment by changing its structure [1, 2]. The mechanical stimulation has now been recognized vital for regulating bone remodelling processes of bone formation (by bone-forming cells osteoblasts) and resorption (by bone-resorptive cells osteoclasts) and thus bone microstructure, bone mass, and bone strength [3]. Osteocytes are seen as the main candidates for mechanosensory effects of the bone, which are the most numerous bone cells (making up about 90C95% [4, 5] of all bone cells, with osteoblasts and osteoclasts collectively only making up a total of up to 6% [6]). Osteocytes are known to regulate bone remodelling and are located within their lacunae surrounded from the perilacunar matrix (PCM) inlayed in the bone matrix (extracellular matrix or ECM). Osteocytes are connected to each other with slender cell processes located within small tubes called the canaliculi within the bone matrix. It is believed that, through this osteocyte cell body-cell process-lacunar-canalicular system, the osteocytes are the mechanosensors/mechanotranducers in bones, which can sense the mechanical loadings and transduce them into biochemical signals regulating bone remodelling [7C11]. To investigate bone cells mechanosensing/mechanotransduction and biomechanical behaviours of osteocytes, a number of experts possess analyzed the osteocyte-lacunar-canalicular system by theoretical analytical models. The mathematical model has been a good tool to explain the trend of mechanotransduction in the lacunar-canalicular system [12], which is definitely well accepted to be induced by flow movement-like fluid shear stresses [13C19]. Combined with microfocus computer tomography (mCT), the finite element (FE) modeling can be a biomechanical analysis tool to study bone [20]. In buy ABT-888 addition, the FE method can be used to simulate blood flow, regeneration processes, bone remodeling process, and heat transfer and evaluate bone strength [21, 22]. McCreadie and Hollister (1997) were the first researchers to study the mechanical behaviours of lacunae and osteocytes by using an idealized 3D linearly isotropic material FE model [23]. Bonivtch et al. (2007) analysed the microstructural responses of the osteocyte lacuna by using a parametric linearly isotropic material FE model [24]. Sanz-Herrera et al. (2008) developed buy ABT-888 the FE and the Voxel-FE models at the macroscopic and microscopic scales [25]. More recently, with the development of computer and FE analysis software, the FE analysis has been buy ABT-888 widely applied to investigate the biomechanical behaviours of osteocytes [26C29]. 3D linearly isotropic material FE models of osteocytes have been developed including an idealized model and biorealistic (confocal image-derived) model [26]. A linearly isotropic material 3D biorealistic osteocyte FE model was created based on synchrotron X-ray phase nanotomography [30]. Strain amplification analysis was conducted on an osteocyte under static and cyclic loading using an idealized linearly isotropic material 3D FE model [28]. Based on quasi-3-dimensional (quasi-3D) cell microscopy, a fluidCstructure interaction FE method was used buy ABT-888 to study viscoelastic property [29]. Thus, the FE model analysis is an effective alternative method for the in vitro biomechanical studies [22]. Since nutrients and exchanges of metabolic products or biochemical signals of osteocytes depend on the movement of interstitial fluid [31], basically, Rabbit Polyclonal to PARP (Cleaved-Gly215) nutrients are transported by both fluid diffusion and flow within the bone [32C34]. Reich et al. (1990) [35] and Reich and Frangos (1991) [36] had been the first ever to carry out fluid flow research on bone tissue cells in tradition, and they discovered that osteoblasts and endothelial cells got similar reactions to liquid shear tension excitation. Small substances (e.g., proteins) could be diffusively transferred alone towards the osteocytes [37]. The solute transportation happened through the lacunar-canalicular program under cyclic launching, when the concentrations were different in the lacunar flow between your outward and inward [33]. Goulet et al. [32] utilized a homogeneous model and a vascularized model to show the bulk liquid motion and liquid exchange between your canals as well as the lacunocanalicular porosity. The process of the diffusional mixing was very fast and the numerous osteocyte lacunae are used as mixing chambers [17]. Osteocytes were proposed to be stimulated by relatively small buy ABT-888 fluid shear stresses acting on the membranes of the osteocytes [14]. In addition, since the passage of interstitial pore fluid adjacent.

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