Data Availability StatementOur data is up on figshare with the accession number 10. A computer virus (IAV). Thus, the zebrafish is usually a powerful system with which to inquire questions about the etiology and mechanisms of muscle damage due to genetic and/or infectious diseases. METHODS: We infected zebrafish with IAV and assayed muscle tissue structure, sarcolemma integrity, cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and molecular and cellular markers of inflammation in response to IAV contamination alone or in the context of DMD. RESULTS: We find that IAV-infected zebrafish display mild muscle degeneration with sarcolemma damage and compromised ECM adhesion. An innate immune response is usually elicited in muscle in IAV-infected zebrafish: NFkB signaling is usually activated, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is usually upregulated, and neutrophils localize to sites of muscle damage. IAV-infected dmd?mutants display more severe muscle damage than would be expected from an additive effect of dmd?mutation and IAV infection, suggesting that muscle damage caused by Dystrophin-deficiency and IAV contamination is synergistic. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate the importance of preventing IAV infections in individuals with genetic muscle diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms of immune-mediated muscle damage will not only apply to DMD and?IAV, but also to other conditions where the immune system, inflammation, and muscle tissue are known to be affected, such as autoimmune diseases, malignancy, and aging. INTRODUCTION Skeletal muscle is critical for homeostasis because skeletal muscle is required for breathing, posture, locomotion, metabolism, thermoregulation, and the immune response. Muscle tissue is usually remarkably plastic and can increase or decrease in mass in response to genetic and environmental factors. Muscle degeneration is usually a serious health issue that can reduce lifespan and quality of life. Muscle wasting can be caused by aging, injury, disuse, medications, genetic mutations, and infectious or inflammatory diseases. Understanding how muscle growth, regeneration, and degeneration are regulated in response to genetic and environmental insults alone and in combination is an important undertaking in order to be able to promote muscle health in cases of sickness and disease. Skeletal muscle damage occurs in response to some genetic and infectious or inflammatory diseases. The most common, genetic muscle Trp53inp1 Nutlin 3a inhibitor database wasting disease is usually Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), which is usually caused by mutations in the gene. The most common viral infections that cause muscle pain and weakness are Influenza A and B viruses1 . Many strides have been made towards elucidating the mechanisms of Nutlin 3a inhibitor database muscle degeneration due to mutations. Dystrophin is required in muscle fibers for sarcolemma integrity2 and in muscle stem cells Nutlin 3a inhibitor database for proper polarity and asymmetric cell division3. However, much less is known about the etiology of Nutlin 3a inhibitor database Influenza-induced muscle damage and nothing is known about the consequences of Influenza contamination in the context of patients with genetic muscle wasting diseases. Biopsies from patients with genetic muscle diseases or muscle complications of Influenza contamination show biomarker and histological similarities, suggesting that these conditions may share common mechanisms of muscle damage. Creatine kinase was upregulated Nutlin 3a inhibitor database and correlated with poor outcome in patients with IAV muscle complications4. Creatine kinase upregulation is also used in the diagnosis of DMD. The first histological report of muscle biopsies from IAV (H1N1)-infected people found muscle necrosis, fibers with variable diameters, atrophic round fibers, atrophic angulated fibers, type 1 and 2 fiber atrophy, and type 1 fiber predominance5. The findings from these biopsies are similar to reports of DMD histopathology, which include fiber size variability, fiber necrosis, regeneration, inflammation, and connective tissue deposition6. It is not known whether Influenza contamination exacerbates muscle damage in the context of genetic muscle.
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Supplementary MaterialsDataset S1: 16S alignment found in phylogenetic analyses in Amount Supplementary MaterialsDataset S1: 16S alignment found in phylogenetic analyses in Amount
The overuse or misuse of antibiotics has accelerated antibiotic resistance, creating a major challenge for the public health in the world. highlighted the prevalence of ARGs and MGEs in microbial community of STPs. Introduction The wide use of antibiotics results in environmental releases, accelerating antibiotic resistance development in hospital wastewater, domestic sewage and livestock manure. Sewage receives the gut bacteria previously exposed to antibiotics, so that sewage treatment plants (STPs) are considered SNS-032 as important reservoirs for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) . Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), e.g. plasmids , , transposons  and integrons , , are often involved in horizontal transfer of ARGs among environmental SNS-032 bacteria. With the help of insertion SNS-032 sequences (ISs), transposons often jump randomly and occasionally on genome or plasmid, resulting in gene transfer and multiple resistances . Integrons may capture, integrate and express resistance gene cassettes in their variable region and facilitate the transmission of resistance genes via transposons or conjugative plasmids , . Integrons carrying multiple ARGs are frequently detected in the environments of STPs , , , . Activated sludge and biofilm in STPs are characterized with high microbial density and diversity which may facilitate ARG horizontal transfer . Previous studies have shown that plasmid diversity is extremely high in the microbial community of STPs , , , , , , . However, these investigations were carried out using culture-dependent methods, thus genomic analysis is only possible for a limited selected subset of plasmids. Furthermore, investigation of antibiotic resistance in microbial communities based solely on cultivable bacteria makes the assessment results unrepresentative and biased . Therefore, a metagenomic approach is needed for a more comprehensive overview of plasmids residing in STP microorganisms. Recent studies SNS-032 have shown SNS-032 that the high-throughput sequencing is a promising tool for the analysis of complex microbial communities , . In this study, we employed the transposon aided capture (TRACA) system  to isolate novel plasmids from microbial communities in activated sludge of a STP of Hong Kong, China. High-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analyses were also employed to investigate the diversity and relative abundances of ARGs, virulent factors (VFs), as well as MGEs including plasmids, integrons and transposons. Results and Discussion Analysis of the plasmid metagenome of activated sludge using high-throughput sequencing In order to deeply explore the plasmid metagenome, we employed a plasmid purification kit and a Plasmid Safe DNase to concentrate the plasmids in the DNA samples. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) indicated that the level of tetracycline resistance gene type increased from 1.1105 copies/ng of total DNA to 4.1106 copies/ng of plasmid DNA after being purified by QIAGEN Plasmid Purification Kit and treated by Plasmid Safe DNase (Figure S1), indicating that the plasmids DNA were concentrated by about 37 fold after the treatments since the gene is found to be only located on MGEs, such as plasmids (see Belgian Biodafty Server – Antibioresistance Archive, http://www.antibioresistance.be). However, PCRs demonstrated that 16S rRNA gene still occurred in the plasmid DNA samples, showing that chromosomal DNA contamination was not completely removed. The plasmid metagenome of activated sludge was analyzed by Illumina Hiseq 2000 high-throughput sequencing, generating 11,550,210 clean reads comprising 1.2 Gb in total (Table S1). Annotation of all the reads showed that the majority was of bacterial origin while very small fractions came from fungi (548 reads, <0.005%) and protozoa (499 reads <0.005%). Nearly half (44.8%) of the Illumina reads was well assembled into a total of 4,641 contigs of over 500 bp, with N50 length of 3.0 kb and the total contig length of 7.1 Mb (Table S1). Qin et al.  established a human gut microbial gene catalogue by high-throughput sequencing and 42.7% of the Illumina reads was assembled into contigs of over 500 bp with an N50 length of only 2.2 kb. Comparatively, in this study more reads were well assembled and longer contigs were generated, indicating the validity of the high-throughput sequencing reads. In this study, Trp53inp1 MetaGene analyses revealed a total of 9,315 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the contigs longer than 100 bp (Table S2). They occupied 92.0% of the contigs, which is comparable to that in the human.